By now, most people are familiar with the term “hydraulic fracturing,” or fracking, and the chemicals that have been used to extract the natural gas.
But the chemical used in hydraulic fracturing is called pentane.
Pentane, which is also called anhydrogen peroxide, is a mixture of a petroleum solvent and hydrogen peroxide.
It is usually found in a variety of products like gasoline, but is also used as a solvent in cleaning fluids and in other industries.
Pentonone is the name for the hydrochloric acid.
Pentonone, which comes from a word meaning “watery,” is a strong hydrogen peroxide that is often used as an anesthetic.
It’s also used to create the smell of rotten eggs.
Hydraulic fracking involves injecting high volumes of water underground to break up rock formations, releasing oil and gas.
The water and oil then travel upward through the ground to be extracted.
The US Environmental Protection Agency has found that pentane and pentaneone can cause cancer and other health problems, according to the National Research Council.
The agency issued a “Statement of Concern” in 2015 for the chemicals.
In response to the EPA’s warning, the American Petroleum Institute (API) released a statement saying it has no plans to make pentane or pentaneones a mandatory additive to its products.
The company said it believes that all its products should meet the same standards of safety as other products.
The EPA said the agency found pentane in more than 80% of hydraulic fracturing operations and pentanoic in at least 80% to 90% of the wastewater injection wells.
The report also found pentanoate to be present in water in some oil and natural gas production wells.
In 2015, the EPA announced plans to phase out pentanoates from some products.
A recent study from the Institute for Responsible Technology, a nonprofit that analyzes fracking chemicals, found pentanones were present in wastewater samples at some sites in Pennsylvania.
The researchers said they found the compounds in some fracking wastewater wells at a concentration of 0.04 micrograms per liter.
The chemical was also detected in fracking wastewater samples in two wells in West Virginia and in a fracking wastewater sample at an oil and chemical processing plant in Pennsylvania, the institute said.
Researchers found pentanes were also found in the water in a wastewater well in Arkansas and at an aquifer well in Kentucky.
Researchers also found that the chemical pentanoated in water and wastewater at two fracking sites in New Mexico, as well as at an injection well in Pennsylvania and an oil field in Oklahoma.
The researchers said pentanoating compounds could be the result of “an incomplete, but significant, exposure of water to pentane.”
The EPA’s statement said the chemicals “are likely to have a toxic effect on human health, posing risks to public health and the environment.”
A spokesperson for API told The Huffington Post that pentanoes are not permitted for use in wastewater disposal because of their potential to be a carcinogen.
“We continue to believe that these chemicals are safe to use in fracking and that we should continue to rely on the best scientific information to ensure that our products meet regulatory standards,” API said in a statement.
A spokesperson from the US Environmental Defense Fund, a group that opposes fracking, told The New York Times that pentanes pose a health risk because of how they are used.
“It is not just pentanooids that cause harm, but pentano compounds are also toxic to other life forms,” said Andrea Smith, a spokesperson for the Environmental Defense Foundation.
“This is a problem with an epidemic and the pentano is not a panacea.”
In a statement, the API said pentane has been “removed from most products and is no longer permitted to be used in fracking fluids or wastewater.”
“Pentanoone is a product of hydraulic drilling that is no more toxic than the rest of the water,” the statement said.
The American Petroleum Alliance said that pentanates “do not pose any health risks to human health and are safe for use.”
The group also said that the pentane is “not a toxic chemical, and it is not used as any sort of preservative or disinfectant.”
The American Chemistry Council said pentanone is not considered a carcinogenic by the American Chemical Society, but “there are other carcinogenic chemicals that are used in other products.”